voltage

1. LM2679-5.0 Switching Regulator Design

I am designing a constant 5 volt output switching regulator that bucks 12 to 24 volts down to 5 volts while supporting 5 amps. It is used to boot up a Raspberry Pi with a 10 inch screen. At 12 volts, the Pi will boot up fine. At 24 volts, around halfway through the bootup, the regulator will...
2. Which electrical signal is better for industry among the following? Why?

Which electrical signal is better for industry among the following? Why? 1. 0 to 10 volts signal. 2. 0 to 20 milliamps signal. 3. 4 to 20 millimeters signal.
3. 3.3V Microcontroller pin protection circuit.

Hey all! :) I was looking for a solution to protect the analog pins of the ESP32 microcontroller. My circuit can produce voltages up to 5V and the analog pins of the ESP32 can only withstand 3.3V max. I found a solution online (picture attached) but I don't understand how the circuit works. I...
4. Formula for calculating capacitor balance resistor values

$$R_{balance} = \frac{NV_{rate} - V_{bus}}{I_{maxleak}}$$ N is the number of capacitors in series Vrate is the rated maximum voltage for any one capacitor Vbus is the bus voltage (the expected voltage across the whole series of capacitors) Imaxleak is the maximum leakage current Rbalance is the...
5. How to clear glitch

Hi Everyone I have designed simple P-Channel MOSFET Circuit! it works well. However, when low Source power is applied(1V), glitch occurs in the output signal. I tried R,L,C component, But it didn't work What can I do to get rid of this? Circuit...
6. Emulate battery in charging state

I am trying to build a circuit to emulate a lipo battery. Basically the circuit consists in a power supply to emulate the discharge behaviour and a variable load to eulate the charge behaviour. This is the circuit in a simplified way This basically generates 2 circuits...
7. Can IR Sensor TCRT1000 and TCRT5000 operate at 12V?

I asked chat GPT, and it said TCRT1000 and TCRT5000 are not suited for ops above 5V. But interestingly I have read a research paper where TCRT1000 has been used at 9V. I would like help decoding these datasheets and understanding whether its safe to use these sensors at 12V, I don't really trust...
8. 5V to 1.5V voltage conversion

Hi, I am trying to replace a battery powered circuit with a AC to DC adaptor circuit. I have a 5V adaptor but the device requirement is 1.5V. So, what is best way to reduce this voltage? Is using a resistor good enough? If so can you help me in understanding how to choose the value of resistor...
9. Build a low voltage, high voltage and surge protector

I want to protect my LED TV from low and high voltages and also from voltage surges. Required output voltage range 200 - 250 V AC (RMS). I want to make it simple and effective one. Which one of these two options work best and please recommend other solutions 1. Just use V275LA40BP to protect...
10. If V = I x R then does it still "make sense" to refer to a battery's voltage when not connected to anything? As in I = 0..?

I'm an automotive mechanic that specializes in electrical/drivability diagnosis. I like helping other techs get a better grasp on this aspect of our trade. Now imagine I'm with another tech and I have a battery and a multimeter in front of me. I measure the battery's voltage and get 12V. Me...
11. I cannot control the transmitter with the XTR101 IC

0-5 V to 4-20 mA linear conversion from voltage to current signal transmitter, this is the circuit I want to make. Materials used in the circuit: XTR101 BAT249 BD243 Level transmitter I am setting up the circuit, I get 5 V at the output without connecting the level transmitter. When I...
12. esp32 c3 rc522 df player mini there is a voltage drop in the circuit

I want to play music from dfplayer mini with an rfid card reader. When I set up the circuit on the plate, I get a voltage drop, I don't know why, very meaningless ı use 5vto3v3 ams1117, entry 10uf exit 10uf and normally I was going to feed it with tp4056, I would switch my circuit with a...
13. Buffer AM signal (5W)

Dear all, may I ask how to buffer an AM Signal so that it contains more power, maybe 5W for my Remote Control RC? I have buffered the AM signal using op-amp but the power output is just not enough. I have tried using this push-pull transistor pair, but the waveform seems to be unbuffered. I...
14. Arduino PID for propeller pendulum to balance horizontally

Dear all, this hobby project I setup is using an encoder to make the stick to be 90 degress which is at 1500 steps (0 degrees=perfectly horizontal using PID control). My encoder counter code is obtained from video here and I have tested it which works perfectly well. Since this encoder is 1200...
15. PAC1934 DC Power/Energy Monitor

I want to read the voltage and current at the output of the line with the PAC1934 IC. It is stated that the breakdown limit is 40V, but when I give a voltage over 32V on this line, I cannot view it and there is an underlined phrase in the datasheet Page 3. What does it mean? How can I read a...
16. Linear Frequency to Linear Voltage circuit

Dear all, the circuit above is quoted from here, and I wish to try to produce similar graph in LT Spice but I am unsure of it. The LT Spice schematic is correct since I tested it with specific 10V input AC, and it produces linear voltage on its output. However, I want to do an AC sweep on this...
17. Reduce Frequency of Waveform

Dear all, may I ask if there is a circuit that produces the following input and output which basically reduces its frequency by 2 times which also basically stretch out the input waveform to produce the following output? Thank you for reading :)
18. Question regarding water resistance changing with voltage

Hi, recently I have been trying to find out regarding resistance of water at high voltages. I may seem oddly obsessed with this but it is forming a big part of a science project I am doing revolving around electrical safety with water and wet things, using detailed resistance values to back...
19. How to freeze CD 4017 (Rain Led Chip)

Dear all, I have successfully simulated a continuous led array that light up consecutively one after another using LT Spice and have even built one on breadboard and it works well. Well, my question is how would you freeze the led and how do we activate the clock inhibit on both the chips? Like...
20. Repairing Christmas/Fairy Lights

I have a little experience with wiring after having to hot-wire my aftermarket radio in my car when changing it out, however I do not know how to fix this issue. The wires in the plug were loose and the lights were not turning on because of this, so i cut it off and figured it'd be as simple as...