# Universal Transformer-less AC 1PH Stabilizer

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
Universal Transformer-less AC 1PH Stabilizer.
Can be extended to multi-phase AC Systems.

Sigma sum or simple summation equation
Vtotal = v1 +/- v2 +/- v3 +/- ... +/- vn

Design Engineer: Jayanth D

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#### ronsimpson

Joined Oct 7, 2019
2,710
I am trying to understand. The powerline comes on through a large number of fuses and TRIACs. You must be anticipating a very large current. Next a full wave bridge. Next the capacitor C8 is being charged up through a 100k resistor which limits the current to mA. (very slow charge up) R24 & R25 makes a voltage divider. Then this is repeated 8 times in parallel. When power is out R25 discharges C8.

There are 6x8=48 fuses on the Neutral line and 48 12A fuses on the Power Line.

To charge up a C8 to 5V, you have power loss in the TRIACs and in the Bridge and in R24 so that only a very small amount of the total power makes it to C8.

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
I am trying to understand. The powerline comes on through a large number of fuses and TRIACs. You must be anticipating a very large current. Next a full wave bridge. Next the capacitor C8 is being charged up through a 100k resistor which limits the current to mA. (very slow charge up) R24 & R25 makes a voltage divider. Then this is repeated 8 times in parallel. When power is out R25 discharges C8.
View attachment 251844
There are 6x8=48 fuses on the Neutral line and 48 12A fuses on the Power Line.

To charge up a C8 to 5V, you have power loss in the TRIACs and in the Bridge and in R24 so that only a very small amount of the total power makes it to C8.
It is just a 100% full but basic full circuit design. For example, I might need 220V AC 50 Hz 1PH 16A for a refrigirator and I want the power switches to be just warm and so I want each power switch rated at 20A to conduct only 2A to 4A and so I have multiple parallel power switches. It can then work with or without additional cooling. Just a full concept. If mains ACV is 110V then I will operate say 2 switching blocks so that 110V + 110V AC = 220V AC full sine wave. If ACV mains is 280V and as I need only fixed full clean sine wave, I will add multiple chopped voltages such that it gives 220V AC clean sine wave output. The bridge rectifiers is only to get say additional high power DC supply if required and the zener protected 5V is for ADC to control or set each AC power switch block's phase angle.

#### ericgibbs

Joined Jan 29, 2010
17,427
Hi j,
Trying to make sense of that supposed 'specification' but it appears to be just a lot of nonsense.

E

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
Hi j,
Trying to make sense of that supposed 'specification' but it appears to be just a lot of nonsense.

E
In practicle implementation I might have just 2 to 4 AC power switches per switching blocks and a standard power triac is just 0.2 USD here. The implementation with corrected rated main and sub fuses and source and load side Arduino controlled auto-reclose circuit breaker makes it safe in the transformer-less non-isolated power system.

#### ericgibbs

Joined Jan 29, 2010
17,427
Arduino controlled auto-reclose circuit breaker makes it safe in the transformer-less non-isolated power system.
hi,
Exactly what does that mean.?

E

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
hi,
Exactly what does that mean.?

E
I mean, I have an Arduino Nano 33 BLE SENSE based ACS7xx HCS and LM35 based modular circuit breaker system with auto-reclose system which tries to close the circuit say using AC or DC Power switch(s) based on the source and load type. The auto-reclose system tries closing the circuit a set few times to check if the fault has been cleared.

#### ericgibbs

Joined Jan 29, 2010
17,427
The auto-reclose system tries closing the circuit a set few times to check if the fault has been cleared.
Hi,
So you are saying the system reconnects the power to a possibly faulty system.!

You cannot be serious.

E

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
How is this any different than his other thread on the same subject that was closed? Just because he hasn't mentioned the obvious yet that he did before doesn't mean it isn't what he's doing.
The fault maybe temporary like thermal trip because the the one UTS or Universal trip switch can act as thermal tripper, frequency tripper, + either as MCB, MCCB, RCBO, RCCB, ELCB, etc,... If one bldcm cooling fan had failed or some temporary issue or of temperature sensor had failed or one Power Switch was hot then it would be a thermal trip. Then it checks the circuit state. It is very simple system but Advanced modular Circuit Breaker for both source and load side. In general one CB monitors many parameters.

This is a different by means that it is not a Universal Power Supply Unit but an Universal Transformer-less AC Stabilizer.

I have noted that it is not allowed here to discuss about the efficiency >= 1 system but I can say that my system is practically say 99.99% efficient for example my non-moving mechanical parts, Hot and Cold Peltier based fridges, ironbox, geysers, instant geysers, enema geysers, hobs, medical thermal pads, and many more such devices which mainly use just a good Arduino, a power H-Bridge and not more than 48V DC Power supply. The high-efficiency is due to no mechanical system and Solar Panel with SuperCapacitors and additional batteries if required.

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#### ronsimpson

Joined Oct 7, 2019
2,710
99.99% efficient
Please explain how you get power through R24 to charge C8 at more than 10% efficient.

I am not picking on you, I just don't see how it works.

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
Please explain how you get power through R24 to charge C8 at more than 10% efficient.
View attachment 251895
I am not picking on you, I just don't see how it works.

The original design was like this...

The 100k and 10k VD was designed for another recent system where bridge rectifier max output was 48V DC and so,

48V / 110k = 0.000436A
0.000436A * 100k = 43.6V
0.000436A * 10k = 4.36V
ADC input can take 5V DC max input

So, for a 280V AC to DC system for measuring through ADC using VDS is...

280V AC * 1.4142 = 396V DC
I need say 396V - 4.7V and 4.7V and so the VDS should be...

100k and ...
391.3 / 100k = 0.003913A (V / R = I)
4.7V = 0.003913A * R2 (V = IR)
R2 = 4.7V / 0.003913A = 1.2I

R1 = 100k 1% standard resistor value
R2 = 1.2k 1% standard resistor value

The ADC input will then have 4.7V DC max for 280V AC and so the Arduino map() will give...

the scaling can be for convenience as needed that is...

4.7V = 280V AC = 4700mV...
So, 5000mV will be representing something between 280V to 300V AC...

Then I monitor this 0 to 5V DC to set the firing angle...

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#### ronsimpson

Joined Oct 7, 2019
2,710
I see now, you are just monitoring the voltage. You are not storing energy on the cap.
The 1000uF capacitor is very large for that job.

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
I see now, you are just monitoring the voltage. You are not storing energy on the cap.
The 1000uF capacitor is very large for that job.
Yes, 10uF at max I will use but the ADC input DCV will saturated and not ripple DC. I just assume input 220VAC as pure sinewave and convert 0 to 4.7V DC input to ADC to 0 to 280VAC value using map() and start individual triac blocks at 0V and gradually adjust each triac blocks firing angle such that I get only fixed pure sinewave 220VAC from even say 50VAC to 280VAC.

#### BobTPH

Joined Jun 5, 2013
6,519
start individual triac blocks at 0V and gradually adjust each triac blocks firing angle such that I get only fixed pure sinewave 220VAC from even say 50VAC to 280VAC.
I see nothing in your circuit that can increase the voltage from 50 to 220V.

Bob

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
I see nothing in your circuit that can increase the voltage from 50 to 220V.

Bob
That is controlled by code like if transformer respective windings are connected in series it sums up the ACVs. It is similar but with only AC power switches.

#### shortbus

Joined Sep 30, 2009
9,861
I see nothing in your circuit that can increase the voltage from 50 to 220V.

Bob
Do you have your tin foil hat tight enough? That helps to understand.

#### BobTPH

Joined Jun 5, 2013
6,519
So you have at least 5 isolated, independent AC sources of 50V?

Bob

#### kiroma

Joined Apr 30, 2014
58
I don't see why there are the neutral TRIACs. Shouldn't the line ones be enough to switch?
Maybe you're putting it all in series, I don't see it in the schematics, it seems that all comes from the same neutral and line wires.

#### jayanthd

Joined Jul 4, 2015
945
I don't see why there are the neutral TRIACs. Shouldn't the line ones be enough to switch?
Maybe you're putting it all in series, I don't see it in the schematics, it seems that all comes from the same neutral and line wires.
The circuit is just for explaining the concept implementation. The final fully perfectly working circuit might have a few more parallel triac blocks. The circuit is not isolated one but it uses slow blow fuses and source and load side Arduino based electrical, thermal, etc,... circuit breaker.

Yes, if ACV mains is 50VAC then say it is found out in code how many triac blocks needs to be turned On at what firing angle(s) so that final voltage is always 220VAC fixed and pure sinewave and no any distortion.

The multiple parallel triacs in each block provides sufficient current to the load without heating up the power switches but in each triac block with parallel triacs, all the triacs will have the same firing angle.

The NEUTRAL line also has power switches according to Indian and few other country standards where sometimes the LINE and NEUTRAL gets interchanged.

I am working on the design implementation in simulator using theory and code for proper multiple triac firing system to get the correct output.

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