Turning energy into matter...


Joined Aug 27, 2009
The “breaking the vacuum.” is more PopSci than actual science.
According to the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the zero-point energy of empty space isn't zero, but some positive, finite value. Although we visualize it as particles and antiparticles popping in-and-out of existence, a better depiction is to recognize that, with enough energy, you can — through physics — use these electromagnetic properties of empty space to generate real particle/antiparticle pairs. This is based on the simple Einsteinian physics of E = mc2, but requires a strong enough electric field to build those particles: around 1016 volts per meter. Light, since it's an electromagnetic wave, carries with it both electric and magnetic fields, and will reach that critical threshold with a laser intensity of 1029 W/cm2.
Whenever energy is added to a system, the system gains mass. A fully charged EV battery with 16 kWh 181kg would weight ~ one billionth of a kilogram more than a discharged battery.

Delta Prime

Joined Nov 15, 2019
What if I were to tell you that China and the UK are just two days behind the US and guess what? Portugal.I know it sounds crazy I am in no way saying I am an insider nor an outsider your tenacity is indicative of all those I've had a privilege of meeting who are not compartmentalized. Big thumbs up to you!
As well as my nemesis :mad: