# How to start to hardware design

#### josepars

Joined Nov 28, 2018
48
Hi everyone. I can draw circuits on altium and make PCB .I want to learn how to design circuit.What should I do ? For example, I want to learn the basic of the design.How should I start?

#### Papabravo

Joined Feb 24, 2006
14,197
I would do a couple of things:
2. Get a textbook on circuit design
3. Start reading, and work on the exercises
4. Build a collection of useful circuits as you do the reading and the exercises
5. Once you have assembled the building blocks, make something

#### josepars

Joined Nov 28, 2018
48
Do you have any suggestions for circuit design book ?

#### WBahn

Joined Mar 31, 2012
26,033
That depends on what your current level of knowledge is? The first step is to learn how to analyze basic linear circuits. Then basic nonlinear circuits. Then basic transistor circuits. How comfortable are you with all of that that?

#### josepars

Joined Nov 28, 2018
48
I have background information but I want to learn everything about circuit design.

#### Papabravo

Joined Feb 24, 2006
14,197
The books I used half a century ago are all obsolete now. Given the price of textbooks making a sub optimal choice could be costly. My advice is to browse Amazon for a hardcover for between $10 &$30, that way you can get started and if it leaves you cold you won't be out a weeks pay. You could do worse than browse the online book associated with this site.

EDIT: I found a surprise for less than \$10. How bad could it be for that price?
https://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing/1118493125/ref=sr_1_10?s=books&keywords=Circuits&qid=1595022681&sr=1-10&dchild=1

Last edited:

#### MrSoftware

Joined Oct 29, 2013
1,860
Pick a college with an electrical engineering program, pretend you want to be a student and check what text book you need for the first class. Then see if you can find it used online. Schools change books often, though the old books are fine, maybe you can find the "outdated" but still valid book super cheap.

#### WBahn

Joined Mar 31, 2012
26,033
I have background information but I want to learn everything about circuit design.
That provides essentially zero useful information.

What is "background information"?

"Background information" should include should include proficiency with the following (non-exhaustive) list:
* constitutive equations for resistors, capacitors, and inductors.
* Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
* Kirchhoff's Current Law
* branch current analysis
* loop voltage analysis
* mesh current analysis
* node voltage analysis
* superposition
* transform methods of circuit analysis
* complex power
* magnetically-coupled circuits
* constitutive equation for p-n junction diodes
* large signal analysis of diode circuits
* small signal analysis of diode circuits
* constitutive equations for bipolar junction and field effect transistors
* large signal analysis of transistor circuits
* single transistor common emitter/source amplifiers
* single transistor common collector/drain amplifiers
* single transistor common base/gate amplifiers
* two-transistor differential pair amplifiers
* current mirrors
* two-port networks
* frequency-selective networks
* ideal opamp circuits
* non-ideal opamp circuits
* oscillators
* combinatorial digital logic
* sequential digital logic
* finite state machine analysis

Are you proficient in all of these topics? If not, which ones are you proficient in?

It is pretty much impossible for anyone "to learn everything about circuit design."

This would include, as just a short sample:

High voltage DC power transmission
High voltage AC power transmission
Rotating machine design
Microwave circuits
Electro-optical circuits
Superconductor circuits
Sub-microvolt circuits
Digital integrated circuit design
Mixed-signal integrated circuit design
Automotive electronics
Transformer design
CPU architectures
Memory architectures
Magnetic storage devices
Inductive energy transfer design

So do you think you might be just a little more specific in what you are asking for?

#### josepars

Joined Nov 28, 2018
48
hi @
That provides essentially zero useful information.

What is "background information"?

"Background information" should include should include proficiency with the following (non-exhaustive) list:
* constitutive equations for resistors, capacitors, and inductors.
* Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
* Kirchhoff's Current Law
* branch current analysis
* loop voltage analysis
* mesh current analysis
* node voltage analysis
* superposition
* transform methods of circuit analysis
* complex power
* magnetically-coupled circuits
* constitutive equation for p-n junction diodes
* large signal analysis of diode circuits
* small signal analysis of diode circuits
* constitutive equations for bipolar junction and field effect transistors
* large signal analysis of transistor circuits
* single transistor common emitter/source amplifiers
* single transistor common collector/drain amplifiers
* single transistor common base/gate amplifiers
* two-transistor differential pair amplifiers
* current mirrors
* two-port networks
* frequency-selective networks
* ideal opamp circuits
* non-ideal opamp circuits
* oscillators
* combinatorial digital logic
* sequential digital logic
* finite state machine analysis

Are you proficient in all of these topics? If not, which ones are you proficient in?

It is pretty much impossible for anyone "to learn everything about circuit design."

This would include, as just a short sample:

High voltage DC power transmission
High voltage AC power transmission
Rotating machine design
Microwave circuits
Electro-optical circuits
Superconductor circuits
Sub-microvolt circuits
Digital integrated circuit design
Mixed-signal integrated circuit design
Automotive electronics
Transformer design
CPU architectures
Memory architectures
Magnetic storage devices
Inductive energy transfer design

So do you think you might be just a little more specific in what you are asking for?
I dont have a lot information about
High voltage DC power transmission
High voltage AC power transmission
Rotating machine design
Microwave circuits
Electro-optical circuits
Superconductor circuits
Sub-microvolt circuits
Digital integrated circuit design
Mixed-signal integrated circuit design
Automotive electronics
Transformer design
CPU architectures
Memory architectures
Magnetic storage devices
Inductive energy transfer design

#### WBahn

Joined Mar 31, 2012
26,033
So if you have proficiency in the entire first list, you should be able to start looking for information about different areas of circuit design. Picking something at random, let's consider oscillator design.

Google "oscillator design" and start looking through the links. Some of them will be junk or very superficial. Here's one that looks like it's got some promise:

http://sss-mag.com/cosc.html

Look for links that, like this one, contain references to books or other sites that you can follow. Wikipedia is usually a great source for links for further exploration.

#### josepars

Joined Nov 28, 2018
48
So if you have proficiency in the entire first list, you should be able to start looking for information about different areas of circuit design. Picking something at random, let's consider oscillator design.

Google "oscillator design" and start looking through the links. Some of them will be junk or very superficial. Here's one that looks like it's got some promise:

http://sss-mag.com/cosc.html

Look for links that, like this one, contain references to books or other sites that you can follow. Wikipedia is usually a great source for links for further exploration.
Thanks a lot for your help

#### MisterBill2

Joined Jan 23, 2018
6,659
The very first step in designing almost any circuit is determining what the circuit is supposed to do, what results or action is must provide. Without some goal to reach all efforts are just random motions of arranging things. Once an action is determined then it will be possible to evaluate what electrical signals will be needed to achieve that action. It is no different from a carpenter who must have an idea as to what to build prior to cutting boards and driving nails..
Decide what the circuit must do: Play music, light a light, or display a picture?Or possibly spin a motor.