# How to deal with KVL inconsistancies ?

#### usmansa1

Joined Jan 22, 2017
23
Hi,

I was reading KVL and KCL and I read that KVL cannot be applicable to all the situations specially when :-

" KVL is applicable on the assumption that there is no fluctuating magnetic field linking the closed loop. While, in presence of changing magnetic field in a High Frequency but short wave length AC circuits, the electric field is not a conservative vector field. So, the electric field cannot be the gradient of any potential and the line integral of the electric field around the loop is not zero, directly contradicting KVL. That’s why KVL is not applicable in such a condition "

My Main question is how to deal with this inconsistency or in other words if we face such circuit where AC frequency is high then which method is used
for such kind of circuits to calculate the voltage and current. Many thanks

#### WBahn

Joined Mar 31, 2012
26,321
Hi,

I was reading KVL and KCL and I read that KVL cannot be applicable to all the situations specially when :-

" KVL is applicable on the assumption that there is no fluctuating magnetic field linking the closed loop. While, in presence of changing magnetic field in a High Frequency but short wave length AC circuits, the electric field is not a conservative vector field. So, the electric field cannot be the gradient of any potential and the line integral of the electric field around the loop is not zero, directly contradicting KVL. That’s why KVL is not applicable in such a condition "

My Main question is how to deal with this inconsistency or in other words if we face such circuit where AC frequency is high then which method is used
for such kind of circuits to calculate the voltage and current. Many thanks
KVL is a simplification of Maxwell's Equations in the presence of conservative electric fields. In situations in which the electric fields are not conservative, then you can always use Maxwell's Equations directly.