# Ground wave propogation

Thread Starter

#### Werapon Pat

Joined Jan 14, 2018
35
I'm confused about this method. how is that possible to send an electromagnetic wave into curve line.
I though electromagnetic waves are traveling only straight line. the book didn't explain about it. do anyone knows?

#### ericgibbs

Joined Jan 29, 2010
16,803
hi WP,
This video link may help.

E

#### nsaspook

Joined Aug 27, 2009
10,706
The earth acts like a transmission line where the effect of the 'ground' and air affects the Propagation Constant (velocity, attenuation and phase shift) of the electromagnetic wave much like a optical lens or prism bends light energy. The radio wavelengths must be of a size (frequency) so there is a phase shift across a change (not homogeneous) in the transmission medium causing a changing index of refraction. (from ground, across the atmosphere, to the ionosphere)

The calculations for Non-line-of-sight Propagation also prove the earth is a sphere.

#### BR-549

Joined Sep 22, 2013
4,928
Out in space....radio waves travel in straight lines. But when radio waves travel thru a media......the density gradient of the media can curve the emission path. The media can be neutral or charged.

Radio waves bending around the earth......and around the sun. Density bends emission....not gravity.

Any curved surface or interface can curve emission also.

Opinion:

Einstein was wrong about everything, except the non continuous nature of emission. Emission is one pi....or one half sine at a time. This is because the other pi....is going in the opposite direction. An emission is one full 2pi field....cut and emitted in two separate 1 pi halves......going in opposite directions. One pi is left handed and the other is right handed. This handedness is reversed on the next emission. A radio wave is a left handed jerk....then a right handed jerk.

Take an antenna and put an atom on each side of antenna. Emit one emission. One atom will absorb a left hand energy. The other the right hand energy. Now put one atom in London and one in Hong Kong.

No matter which you measure first...the other will be opposite. There is no magic. It's a simple parlor trick. If you make it mysterious.......you can get funding. And your name in the paper. Like gravity bending light.

Space does not have a property to distort. It has no properties. It's a true zero.

#### nsaspook

Joined Aug 27, 2009
10,706
Opinions are like ...

Dirty Harry Callahan

#### danadak

Joined Mar 10, 2018
4,057
Space does not have a property to distort. It has no properties. It's a true zero.
I am not a physicist. But space is full of dark energy, and energy and matter are equivalent.
Then of course there is a gravity field in space. Space is just full of crap. And hen there is
hydrogen everywhere......

https://www.quora.com/Is-there-any-hydrogen-in-space

Regards, a wanna be physicist, with enough knowledge not to fill a thimble.

Regards, Dana.

Thread Starter

#### Werapon Pat

Joined Jan 14, 2018
35
clearly explain, thanks a lot !

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