# Current flow single electron orbiting H atom

Joined Mar 10, 2018
4,057
It is ~ 1mA

Its speed is > 2.3 x 10^6 m/s

It circles the proton in ~ 10^-16 sec

Regards, Dana.

#### nsaspook

Joined Aug 27, 2009
7,866
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#### ErnieM

Joined Apr 24, 2011
8,078
In an atom the electrons do not "orbit" the nucleus.

#### Papabravo

Joined Feb 24, 2006
14,846
The way to get a sense of what is going on is to consider yourself a big game hunter stalking the quantum mechanical tiger.
1. If you know where he is, you don't know where to aim because by the time the bullet reaches his position, he is somewhere else.
2. If you know how fast he is moving, you don't know where to aim because he is essentially everywhere.
In any instant of time you cannot know with arbitrary precision where the electron is and how fast it is moving. It is essentially everywhere with all possible velocities (magnitude and direction).

Joined Mar 10, 2018
4,057
https://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=1195

The weird thing about that cloud is that its spread in space is related to the spread of possible momenta (or velocities) of the electron. So here's the key point, which we won't pretend to explain here. The more squashed in the cloud gets, the more spread-out the range of momenta has to get. That's called Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. It could quit moving if it spread out more, but that would mean not being as near the nucleus, and having higher potential energy. Big momenta mean big kinetic energies. So the cloud can lower its potential energy by squishing in closer to the nucleus, but when it squishes in too far its kinetic energy goes up more than its potential energy goes down. So it settles at a happy medium, with the lowest possible energy, and that gives the cloud and thus the atom its size.
As stated above, and as we know, there is only a fixed discrete set of momenta it can
occupy. If we do the calculation at the lowest orbit that picks a specifc momenta. The
MIT prof did those calculations at the lowest orbit. Not that he was trying to say a
discrete particle in a race track, just an approximation to it based on radius, charge,
mass..... a mapping of energy and spin and KE and PE into an equivalent circuit.

Regards, Dana.

PS : Not a physicist, so be gentle And by the way electrons are red, I saw it in a book.

#### BR-549

Joined Sep 22, 2013
4,938
That can not be called current. The charge does not pass the same point. And in the same direction.

#### Papabravo

Joined Feb 24, 2006
14,846
https://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=1195

As stated above, and as we know, there is only a fixed discrete set of momenta it can
occupy. If we do the calculation at the lowest orbit that picks a specific momenta. The
MIT prof did those calculations at the lowest orbit. Not that he was trying to say a
discrete particle in a race track, just an approximation to it based on radius, charge,
mass..... a mapping of energy and spin and KE and PE into an equivalent circuit.

Regards, Dana.

PS : Not a physicist, so be gentle And by the way electrons are red, I saw it in a book.
They also absorb and release energy as they jump from level to level. Slippery little buggers, they are. Really hard to pin down.
P.S I thought it was quarks that come in colors and flavors; that's why quantum chromodynamics is what follows quantum electrodynamics.

#### BR-549

Joined Sep 22, 2013
4,938
A H1 "atom" is a dipole. If you measure the B field on the negative electric pole......you'll get about 20 amps. of flux. Yes, there are magnetic fields on each of the charge poles.

If you measure the B field of the positive pole.......you'll get 40,000 to 60,000 amps. of flux.

It's quite an asymmetry. These two B fields align and make the bond. Forming a common M dipole with a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other. But because of the large positive inertia....the angle of the M pole changes in a 360 sphere....with the proton as a stationary origin. It's like a cone with all the weight at the tip. And the base of cone flying all around the tip. The obit is only apparent....because of this structure. It's more like an axle with a very small wheel(proton) and a very large wheel(electron). With all the weight on the small wheel....and all the motion on the large wheel. The axle can change to any angle....with external conditions. It never rotates in one plane. It ONLY SEEMS to random orbit....but it's no mystery.

But if you put two dipoles back to back.....the M dipole becomes completely enclosed......and becomes a true closed nucleus. A true atom. Aligned with a plane.