I am struggling to understand the difference between making a binary upcounter and making an upcounter that increases by 5. How is one supposed to go about that?
In your nomenclature, Q1 and Q4 equal 9. Q1 and Q3 equal 5.A Q outputs give them a value, as is usually done with counters:
The least significant Q will call Q1, Q2 the next, the third Q4 and Q8 the most significant.
So when Q1 and Q4 have a high logic level will have our 5(Dec). 0101(Bin).