Sure. You could do that in a number of ways. You can run it on a VPS with enough capacity for all locations, or you could have a small instance of Node-RED on the LAN there (appliance style) and use it as both the dashboard and the gateway for the other modules.Is it possible to access the dashboard through internet if we use NodeRed? There will numerous locations with 30-50 esp modules in each location. I need to send the adc value from each esp module to a server, process it and make calculations there. Meanwhile I need to display the calculated value on a dashboard (for each location seperately) and need to control each esp module through the dashboard. The data collected needs to be analysed later.
That is, you could have the Node-RED appliance act as an MQTT gateway collecting the messages from the local sensor nodes and forwarding them on to the main broker for insertion into the TSDB (Time Series DB). Process the data and send it back for local display on the dashboard.
The answer is "yes" but even merely the scale of this project and its network dependency cries out for a serious design not just tossing pieces at the problem. I can already see that you are likely to have wireless capacity problems if you don't dedicate an SSID to the sensors (that's where ESP-Now comes in, get them off the WIFi!)
You also don't really want the nightmare of hundreds of devices free to talk over the Internet, that's scary. You also need to consider OTA updates for the ESP32s and plan for it. If oyu use ESP-Now you will have to have a way to tell the ESP32 to switch to WiFi for the OTA and then reboot back into the ESP-Now configuration.
There's a lot to get this right, and sustainable, and scalable. How many people on this project? Oh, and what is the measurement/transmit interval?