# how to start process of PCB or other

#### clangray

Joined Nov 4, 2018
261
If you’re trying to mount several LEDs on locations that are separated by some distance (you haven’t specified where they are mounted) and would like to simplify the wiring, instead of wiring each all the way back to the batteries with individual airs of wires, consider this. On each board, have four connections. Two for power in and two for power out. Carry power in to power out and wire the LED between the power connections. This allows you to daisy-chain individual LED mountings.
I believe I am already doing this: 1 daisy chain with 2 LEDs for one string and 2 LEDs for the next string total of two strings. I will post this schematic again in case it got swallowed up. Both chains are parallel to each other (I believe) and I do this with Adafruit breadboards 4 x 4 for each LED. I have 4 sensors on the same plane.
I run power to ballast 1 to LED 1, then power LED 1 to power 2 and then to ground. I connect a second ballast resistor to the 2nd string: I run power from 3rd LED to power 4th LED 2 string. I daisy chain 2 strings already. Or no?

My basic question still remains - what are my options for the connections themselves? Can I solder stranded wire between the board and the LED mounting? What are some other ways. Thank you! (my crimping skills for DuPont connector is pretty good but my female terrible. I would rather solder the connection then do the DuPont.

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#### djsfantasi

Joined Apr 11, 2010
8,783
My basic question still remains - what are my options for the connections themselves? Can I solder stranded wire between the board and the LED mounting?
I wouldn’t use stranded wire, but you could. Personally, I’d use a solid wire of 22 through 26 gauge.

#### clangray

Joined Nov 4, 2018
261
I wouldn’t use stranded wire, but you could. Personally, I’d use a solid wire of 22 through 26 gauge.
Super basic question: when I design the base board and LED mount board what "component" do I add the boards to, to solder the wire to the board? Do I have to make a post or a pad or some area in the pcb design for soldering the connector?

#### djsfantasi

Joined Apr 11, 2010
8,783
Super basic question: when I design the base board and LED mount board what "component" do I add the boards to, to solder the wire to the board? Do I have to make a post or a pad or some area in the pcb design for soldering the connector?
A pad with a hole. Make sure the size of the hole is big enough for the wire guage you’re using, or larger.

#### Jon Chandler

Joined Jun 12, 2008
496
A large rectangular pad without a hole will work better to keep the front of the board smooth.

#### clangray

Joined Nov 4, 2018
261
Since you asked about pcbs, I believe you actually want to have a pcb fabricated.

Here's a quick and dirty version of your circuit laid out as a board using EasyEDA.

1. Draw the schematic. Unlike your simulation, you'll select the package of each component as you go. You can change the packages later, but it's easier to do it as you go.

View attachment 279343

2. Save the schematic and "convert to pcb". The dumps all the components on the screen with a suggested board outline. The thin blue lines are "air wires" showing the connections.

View attachment 279337

3. Move the components to where you want them on the board. Think about the arrangement of things like LEDs, switches, terminal blocks, etc., and how the connections will be routed.

View attachment 279338

4. At this point, you can see views of what the board will look like and a 3-d view showing components.

View attachment 279339

View attachment 279340

5. If you like the arrangement, you can start routing tracks. Red lines shown the top copper layer, blue the bottom. If you're having boards fabricated, there is usually no cost difference between one layer and two layer boards. This is quick and dirty, but it's a starting point.

View attachment 279341

6. You can view the traces on the board in 2-d or 3-d view.

View attachment 279342

7. When components are where you'd like them, work on moving the component disignators around on the silk screen layer, and add labels, instructions or anything else you want to put on the board.
So I got Eqaswy
I can't say I understand your use case... if you want small boards with a single LED, cut up pieces of perf board may be the best bet.

But if you want to have some small boards fabricated, you can make many of them at an affordable price, by panelizing your design and using v-scores to create multiple boards on a panel. Panelizing means creating multiple copies of your board on a single larger pcb panel. At the Chinese fab houses, you can have 10 printed circuit boards of 100mm x 100mm or smaller made for $5. That's an incredible price. But if you're making a small board, you can put an array of them in the same 100mm x 100mm space. In my example design shown here, an array of 9 boards fits on the panel. Some fab houses charge extra for panelized designs, but Elecrow does not (for multiple copies of one design). So, in this case, you'll get 90 copies for the same five bucks. But you want small boards, not a bunch of copies you have to cut apart. V-scoring creates a line between the boards, so they can be easily snapped apart. You receive 10 panels, which can be easily snapped apart. Pretty slick! So here's an example of something that might be close to what you're thinking. A single 5mm LED, with a single Dupont pin on each end for connections (I wouldn't recommend single Dupont pins, but if you want to do this, put them an exact multiple of 0.1" apart, and use a female header to hold them in position while soldering them in place). I've also added a couple mounting holes for 3mm or 4-40 standoffs or screws. The shape of the nut shows the clearance needed, and the larger circle shows the clearance for a nut driver. The symbol is shown on the documentation layer as a guide while laying out the board, but it doesn't show up on the actual pcb. View attachment 279471 View attachment 279472 So how do you create a panel? EasyEDA has a tool to make this easy. Just specify the array size (keeping the maximum size 100mm or less for the cheapest price) and it creates a layout like this. Only one board is shown, but the fab house will understand to duplicate the design, and make v-scores where shown. Note: JLCPCB charges extra based on the total number of copies. Elecrow does not have an up charge. View attachment 279473 I've gotten to this point now where I have to think about how I am going to panelize. Problem is (2) fold. (1) I don't know how to tell EasyEDA to put the V-Cut labels on and (2) my board shapes are circular. I have about 6 small boards which are about your size here above. #### Jon Chandler Joined Jun 12, 2008 496 Let me get back to you later today. A truly circular board isn't going to be easy, but round with a small flat section on each size won't be too difficult. With EasyEDA, panelizing is just a few clicks. Draw the board you want (one board), and EasyEDA does the rest. Here's an example of some links with rounded ends I created using v-scoring and internal routing. Thread Starter #### clangray Joined Nov 4, 2018 261 Let me get back to you later today. A truly circular board isn't going to be easy, but round with a small flat section on each size won't be too difficult. With EasyEDA, panelizing is just a few clicks. Draw the board you want (one board), and EasyEDA does the rest. Here's an example of some links with rounded ends I created using v-scoring and internal routing. View attachment 280154 The circular is optimal but really 6 L-shapes would be fine as well if that helps. #### Jon Chandler Joined Jun 12, 2008 496 An almost round panelized board using v-score does take a little effort, but it's not too difficult. V-scores are a straight score the must go all the way across the panel. For an almost-round board, there must be enough scored distance so that the board stays together as a panel. Step 1: Create a 90 degree arc in the pcb board outline layer. This must be a slightly smaller radius than half the board width. Duplicate the arc 3 times and rotate as shown here. It's easiest to get the spacing correct if you lay the arcs out around the origin - (0,0). Step 2: Connect the ends of the arcs with straight lines. This is the part that will be scored and must be strong enough to hold the boards of the panel together. Strp 3: Layout the components and traces on the board. When everything is to your liking, it's time to create the panel. Click TOOLS, and then PANELIZE. Step 4: Set the size of the array - 100mm x 100mm or less will provide the cheapest boards. Check V-cut, the number of boards to lay out in each direction, and set the column and row spacing to 0. Step 5: Click apply and the panel will be generated. Note that only the board outlines of the copies will be shown, but all of the boards will be just like first. Thread Starter #### clangray Joined Nov 4, 2018 261 An almost round panelized board using v-score does take a little effort, but it's not too difficult. V-scores are a straight score the must go all the way across the panel. For an almost-round board, there must be enough scored distance so that the board stays together as a panel. Step 1: Create a 90 degree arc in the pcb board outline layer. This must be a slightly smaller radius than half the board width. Duplicate the arc 3 times and rotate as shown here. It's easiest to get the spacing correct if you lay the arcs out around the origin - (0,0). View attachment 280163 Step 2: Connect the ends of the arcs with straight lines. This is the part that will be scored and must be strong enough to hold the boards of the panel together. View attachment 280164 Strp 3: Layout the components and traces on the board. When everything is to your liking, it's time to create the panel. Click TOOLS, and then PANELIZE. View attachment 280165 Step 4: Set the size of the array - 100mm x 100mm or less will provide the cheapest boards. Check V-cut, the number of boards to lay out in each direction, and set the column and row spacing to 0. View attachment 280166 Step 5: Click apply and the panel will be generated. Note that only the board outlines of the copies will be shown, but all of the boards will be just like first. View attachment 280168 Before your reply I was trying to create my own circle version (attached). Not dead set on it; now just curious why not. Technically not possible or too expensive? #### Jon Chandler Joined Jun 12, 2008 496 If you want to make 10 boards like this, it will work great. If you want to make more than this, you can panelize a board, where the boards on the panel can be snapped apart. But there needs to be enough structure to hold the boards together in a panel. That's what I illustrated. Thread Starter #### clangray Joined Nov 4, 2018 261 Before your reply I was trying to create my own circle version (attached). Not dead set on it; now just curious why not. Technically not possible or too expensive?View attachment 280223 If I my Easy program is to panelize lets say 6 copies do I make 6 count in my schematic or just 1 there. I missed the important point on this. Because it sounds like this is handled later than the schematic. #### Jon Chandler Joined Jun 12, 2008 496 Just draw one circuit in the schematic, and lay out one circuit on the board, then follow the instructions to panelize. Thread Starter #### clangray Joined Nov 4, 2018 261 Just draw one circuit in the schematic, and lay out one circuit on the board, then follow the instructions to panelize. Can components be customized to whatever angle? Am experimenting a bit: what if I want the component to be at 45 degrees rather than 0-90-180-270 (when pressing "R" for example). The tracings are on the top of the 3D view show on top of the board rather than bottom - is this normal? Last edited: #### Jon Chandler Joined Jun 12, 2008 496 To set any angle, click on the component, then find angle in the properties menu on the right side of screen and enter whatever angle you like. Often, signal traces are on the top side of the circuit board and a ground plane on the bottom. When routing tracks, it defaults to the top layer – the red "top copper" layer in the pop-up layers menu. To place a track on the bottom copper layer, click the blue "bottom copper" layer before you route the track. You can fix what you've already done by clicking on each track, and changing the layer at the top of the properties menu on the right. Thread Starter #### clangray Joined Nov 4, 2018 261 To set any angle, click on the component, then find angle in the properties menu on the right side of screen and enter whatever angle you like. Often, signal traces are on the top side of the circuit board and a ground plane on the bottom. When routing tracks, it defaults to the top layer – the red "top copper" layer in the pop-up layers menu. To place a track on the bottom copper layer, click the blue "bottom copper" layer before you route the track. You can fix what you've already done by clicking on each track, and changing the layer at the top of the properties menu on the right. That worked great. Should my project be track on bottom or on top? #### Jon Chandler Joined Jun 12, 2008 496 A ground plane doesn't really do anything for for this application. You can put the tracks on either the top layer or bottom. The tracks are somewhat visible through the soldermask, so it's a question of esthetics in this case. Thread Starter #### clangray Joined Nov 4, 2018 261 A ground plane doesn't really do anything for for this application. You can put the tracks on either the top layer or bottom. The tracks are somewhat visible through the soldermask, so it's a question of esthetics in this case. In reviewing my design before uploading for printing, I had 2 questions: 1. your component for LED (2 prong) looks correct but my component has an "SMD"-like symbol to it. I've looked numerous times and I can't find your generic LED to replace. I've got 2-prong LEDs. Your photo is top. 2. for every 7 boards I have 1 that's somewhat electrically different but same dimensions. Can the program be told to put all 8 on a panel or will I have to print 7 of 1 type and 1 of a different? Photos #1 (yours top) Last edited: #### Jon Chandler Joined Jun 12, 2008 496 From the common library menu on the left, scroll down to LEDs and click the arrow to get the dropdown menu. You probably want a 5mm through-hole LED. For reasons I've explained several times, you can't make a round board using v-scoring. Almost round, like I've explained, but not completely round. If you want a round board, that's fine. For$5, you'll get 10 copies without paneling.

Can you consolidate your "somewhat different" board into the same design so one board can do both things? If not, it will need to be ordered as a separate board, 10 copies for \$5 (assuming a size of 100mm x 100mm or smaller).

Instead of me playing 20 questions, can you just explain all at once what you're trying to do? I'm happy to help, up to a point.