How is radio frequency can be made short range and long range?

Papabravo

Joined Feb 24, 2006
12,493
What is the basic components or part that make radio frequency into short range or long range?
Range has very little to do with components and everything to do with frequency. Generally speaking the higher the frequency, the shorter the range. There is also a diurnal variation in range depending on the position of the sun and the conditions in the upper atmosphere. There is also the 11 year sunspot cycle and our present position in that cycle. It is possible to adjust range slightly by increasing or decreasing the radiated power of the output. This is the last thing you do after everything else has been tried.
 

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dante_clericuzzio

Joined Mar 28, 2016
213
Range has very little to do with components and everything to do with frequency. Generally speaking the higher the frequency, the shorter the range. There is also a diurnal variation in range depending on the position of the sun and the conditions in the upper atmosphere. There is also the 11 year sunspot cycle and our present position in that cycle. It is possible to adjust range slightly by increasing or decreasing the radiated power of the output. This is the last thing you do after everything else has been tried.
Ok its the frenquency ...how far in radius is the 4G (2.6 Ghz) can transmit (i meant generally)? Can it be like 50 Km? or at least 20 Km
 

Papabravo

Joined Feb 24, 2006
12,493
Ok its the frenquency ...how far in radius is the 4G (2.6 Ghz) can transmit (i meant generally)? Can it be like 50 Km? or at least 20 Km
At that frequency the transmission distance is basically line of sight. Another thing that will have an effect on the distance is atmospheric moisture, since water molecules absorb and scatter microwave frequencies.

You should have found this basic article on propagation:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_propagation
 

MrChips

Joined Oct 2, 2009
19,380
Ok its the frenquency ...how far in radius is the 4G (2.6 Ghz) can transmit (i meant generally)? Can it be like 50 Km? or at least 20 Km
It depends on the transmitted power, gain and radiation pattern of the transmitter antenna, gain and radiation pattern of the receiving antenna.
 

Motanache

Joined Mar 2, 2015
481
Ok its the frenquency ...how far in radius is the 4G (2.6 Ghz) can transmit (i meant generally)? Can it be like 50 Km? or at least 20 Km
It's weird. But the maximum distance at 2G, 3G.....is not due to transmit power(5W) or sensitivity of reception(-109dBm).........
It is given by the time advance variable.

At a simple communication depends on the emission power, transmitter bandwidth (Eg SSB) sensitivity of reception and propagation conditions.
 
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nsaspook

Joined Aug 27, 2009
6,478
It's weird. But the maximum distance is not due to transmit power or sensitivity of reception........here.
It is given by the time advance variable.
True, the signal can be transmitted much longer distances (low earth orbit intercepts of cell signals) but the 4G TDMA technology networking is limited by the speed of light and the need to have round-trip timed slots for users.
 
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