What does it mean when a dot is filled in vs not filled in?

Thread Starter


Joined Feb 15, 2018
Well, these are HW questions so I am not sure where they came from. I am using Sedra and Smith 7th edition but I dont see an explanation for them.
Your explanation makes sense. Thanks!


Joined Apr 26, 2005
Looking at the diagram, you can see external connections having the open dot. Internal connections having the filled dots. Internal and external referenced to the circuit board. They are also variable.

That is my observation only, not a standard.
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