Difference between the online and PDF books and unclear concept

Thread Starter


Joined Apr 5, 2019
I will illustrate how I became confused by the explanation in the online version:

I am reading this: https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-1/voltage-current/
And it talks about charge carriers. At the first mention of those, I thought these were electrons:
"we also need some means to push these charge carriers around the circuit. Just like marbles in a tube or water in a pipe"

However, further down, it seems that there are other types of charge carriers:
"The positive end of a battery is the end that tries to push charge carriers out of it "

At this point, I got confused: what are these charge carriers? I thought perhaps they were defined previously and I didn't
pay attention. So, I referred to the PDF version, where I could search through the entire document and "charge carriers" aren't even mentioned there!

Instead, the way that the book handles this specific explanation:
"Since we have decided to call electrons ”negatively” charged (thanks, Ben!), the negative end of a battery is that end which tries to push electrons out of it. Likewise, the positive end is that end which tries to attract electrons."
(^^ Ahh! much better!)
Now, I am sure "charge carriers" isn't wrong but it's adding unnecessary complexity at this stage and it's not introduced well at all for someone who's new to this.
PS: Very minor but, while someone's at it, there's what seems to be a typo:
"Any source of voltage, including batteries, have "
I am not a native English speaker, but shouldn't it be 'has'?


Joined Aug 27, 2009
Review: https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-1/static-electricity/

You need the proper foundation at this point even if it is a little confusing to a person that maybe thinks the kinetic energy of electrons is important to electrical energy transfer to most current electricity circuits. The proper foundation is to use charge carriers instead of particles because the physical configuration and manipulation of charge movements (current) gives rise to magnetic/electric fields and potentials (voltage) for the transfer of electrical energy. This is very important to the proper understanding of electricity (a field of science, not electrical energy) in later studies.
Last edited: