studiot----I didn’t want to hijack that post. That probably wasn’t the best example. The book had a orthogonal relationship with his hand. Of course the book represented the axle of a flywheel. I really hate to use that animation. It is sooooo wrong. I only used it to show the cockeyedness of the electric and magnetic. That animation doesn’t even show the proper signal thru a resistor, let alone going thru space. For that signal to go thru a resistor.......you would have to rotate x and z axis at frequency rate. Then.....that would show signal thru resistor in proper way. But it is not even close to a radio wave. Nature emits radio energy is two ways. Monopole emission and dipole emission. In monopole(particle) emission, the magnetic field is cocked 180 degrees from the electric norm. It is then cut and emitted. This wave front is not self propagating. It was kicked....shot out.....by charge repulsion at the speed of light. The wave front does not oscillate. It is locked out of phase and will stay so....until it finds matter to relax in. When the wave front does relax(uncocks) in matter....it induces a voltage and current at wave frequency. The next part of a radio wave is the hardest for people to understand. There are two reasons for this. What is the purpose and function of a radio wave? How is angular momentum transferred? The only purpose of a radio wave is to shed excess angular momentum. How does this happen? Piston. rod, crank and flywheel. When a piston fires and strokes.....it gives a half turn to the flywheel. This is the most efficient way to transfer force in or out of a spinning system. Half turn chunks. Half twist chucks. So...the piston gives the flywheel a half turn push...and then what? Then nothing.....nothing for the next half turn. It takes the next half turn for the flywheel to absorb and react to the push AND it takes a half turn to set up the piston again for the next firing. SO for one piston(one piston represents one location or direction in reference to the flywheel), the max energy transfer is a one half turn. Then it has to wait one half turn before applying more torque. Again......the piston energizes the flywheel in one half turn chunks with one half turn pauses. A radio wave acts on the same principle, except it is transferring electrical momentum, not mechanical momentum. A particle is spinning like the flywheel, it can only take energy in one half chunks too. All natural radio emission is a half wave chunk(one pie) with a half wave dead space, then another half wave chunk. The second chunk is the bottom part of the wave. After a particle emits a wave...the particle needs one half wave worth of time to build up the next field to be emitted. During that time...nothing is being emitted. This is how our antennas work also. Now for those who are starting to understand the true nature of radio waves.....a little treat. Earlier I said that there were two forms of emission. With dipole emission.......not only is the magnetic field cocked 180, but the electric field is cocked 180 also. This causes an additional effect. Gravity. Right now with current study from the universal force law.......they think that dipole emission has a little higher term electric leakage.....which causes all particles to attract. We know that they are on the right track, because their equations for gravity work. The gravity equations can predict all solar system movement at same time. No equation has ever done that. But for the exact mechanism....it might be that only on absorption of a dipole emission.....is when gravity effect happens. It’s probably both. Everyone will study the universal force law sooner or later. It has really blown away the old gravity equations and predicted many more nuclides and spectra than known. Also it has shown the proper relationship between electric and magnetic and angular momentum. That relationship is what we call mass. Mass is only apparent.....it is not real. Plus, it really has unified everything. Charge is the only entity in the physical universe. For anyone reading this, and want to know more about the universal force law, or what particles really are and how they interact......please feel free to contact me.