My Articles on AAC (Page I)

The following is a list of my articles on various topics. Besides technical articles, news pieces that might have useful technical information are also included. You can find my articles on FPGA programming and DSP concepts on another page.


Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)
  1. Introduction to Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs)
  2. Learn About the Basics of LVDT Demodulator Circuits
  3. LVDT Demodulation: Rectifier-Type vs. Synchronous Demodulation

Hall Effect Sensors
  1. Hall Effect Magnetic Design: Head-on and Slide-by Configurations
  2. Hall Effect Position Sensing: Response Linearity and Slope for Slide-By Configurations
  3. Digital (ON/OFF) Hall Effect Devices: Switches and Latches
  4. Hall Effect Current Sensing: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Configurations

Resistive Current Sensing
  1. Resistive Current Sensing: Low-Side vs. High-Side Sensing
  2. Using Single-Ended Amplifiers in Low-Side Current Sensing: Error Sources and Layout Tips
  3. Learn How Integrated Solutions Can Increase the Accuracy of Resistive Current Sensing
  4. Understanding the Amplifier Offset Voltage and Output Swing in Resistive Current Sensing

Pressure Sensors
  1. ROHM’s Waterproof Barometric Pressure Sensor Is More Than a Weather Forecaster [News]

MEMS Accelerometers
  1. Introduction to Capacitive Accelerometers: Measuring Acceleration with Capacitive Sensing
  2. Deriving the Transfer Function of a Capacitive Sensing Accelerometer
  3. MEMS Accelerometer Frequency Response and Bandwidth Specification
  4. Filtering Accelerometer Output for Noise Suppression and Bandwidth Improvement
  5. What Does an Accelerometer Output When It Isn’t Moving? Zero-g Bias
  6. Accelerometer Specifications: Measurement Range, Sensitivity, and Noise Performance

Piezoelectric Accelerometers
  1. Understanding Piezoelectric Accelerometer Basics
  2. Processing a Piezoelectric Accelerometer Output Using a Charge Amplifier
  3. Understanding Charge Amplifier Errors—Time Constant and Drift
  4. Piezoelectric Accelerometers With Integrated Electronics (IEPE)
  5. Piezoelectric Accelerometers: IEPE Sensors vs. Charge Output Sensors
  6. Accelerometer Mounting Methods: Types, Effects, and Solutions

MEMS Gyroscopes
  1. An Introduction to MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes

  1. Thermocouple Principles—the Seebeck Effect and Seebeck Coefficient
  2. Thermocouple Basics—Using the Seebeck Effect for Temperature Measurement
  3. What is Cold Junction Compensation in Thermocouples?
  4. Thermocouple Cold Junction Compensation Using Analog Temperature Sensors
  5. Unraveling the Thermocouple Approximation Error Using the Least Squares Method
  6. Exploring Monolithic Thermocouple Signal Conditioning Using AD849x and LT1025
  7. Thermocouple Signal Conditioners and Signal Conditioning Near the Cold Junction

Resistance Temperature Detectors
  1. RTD Basics—An Introduction to Resistance Temperature Detectors
  2. Modeling RTD Resistance-temperature Characteristics
  3. An Introduction to RTD Sensor Signal Conditioning Circuits
  4. RTD Signal Conditioning—Voltage vs Current Excitation in 3-wire Configurations
  5. RTD Signal Conditioning—4-Wire Configuration, Ratiometric Measurement, & Filtering

Test and Measurement

Electronic Components' Stability (Drift With Time and Temperature)

  1. Introduction to Allan Variance—Non-overlapping and Overlapping Allan Variance
  2. Temperature Drift in Resistors and Op-amps—Flicker Noise and Signal Averaging
  3. High-temperature Aging Method to Evaluate Electronic Component Aging and Stability
  4. Using the Arrhenius Equation to Predict Electronic Component Aging
  5. Electronic Component Aging—the Aging Effects of Resistors and Op-amps
  6. Electronic Component Aging—Long Term Drift (LTD) in a Voltage Reference

A/D Converters

Quantization Noise

Offset Error, Gain Error, and Calibration

DNL and INL Errors

Calculating the Error Budget
  1. Error Analysis in Analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) Applications


Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)

ADC Testing Methods
  1. Introduction to Servo-Loop ADC Testing
  2. Servo-Loop ADC Testing: Choosing the Parameters
  3. Histogram ADC Testing: The Linear Ramp Histogram Test
  4. ADC Linearity Testing: the Sinusoidal Histogram Method


D/A Converters

Voltage References

Operational Amplifiers And Comparators

Quartz Crystals

  1. Characterizing Frequency Deviations of Quartz Crystals: Frequency Tolerance, Frequency Stability, and Aging
  2. Understanding the Operation of Quartz Crystal Oscillators
  3. Assessing the Effect of Load Capacitance on the Frequency of a Quartz Crystal
  4. Examining the Negative Resistance of a Quartz Crystal Oscillator
  5. How to Measure the Drive Level of a Quartz Crystal

Thermal Design

  1. How Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance of an IC Package Affects Thermal Performance
  2. Theta JA (θJA) Test Conditions for Assessing IC Package Thermal Design
  3. Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance in Thermal Design
  4. Designing with a Heat Sink for Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance
  5. Introduction to Thermal Characterization Parameters

Understanding Noise

Memory Technologies

Embedded C Programming

PCB Design and High-Speed Digital Circuit Considerations

RF and Wireless Communication Technologies

Noise Figure
  1. Using the Noise Figure Metric to Analyze Noise in RF Circuits
  2. Understanding the RF Noise Figure Specification
  3. Noise Figure Concepts—Power Gain, Lossy Components, and Cascaded Systems
  4. Characterize RF Noise Components Using Equivalent Noise Temperature
  5. Explore the Y Factor Method for Noise Figure Measurement
  6. Gain Definitions for the Y-Factor Method of NF Measurements: Available Gain or Insertion Gain?
  7. Noise Figure Measurement Using the Y-Factor Method: Noise Source Uncertainty and Fixturing Losses

Lossless Transmission Lines
  1. RF Design Basics—Introduction to Transmission Lines
  2. Investigating Lossless Transmission Line Phase Constant and Infinite Bandwidth
  3. Transmission Line Theory: Observing the Reflection Coefficient and Standing Wave
  4. RF Design Basics: VSWR, Return Loss, and Mismatch Loss

Lossy Transmission Lines
  1. Introduction to Lossy Transmission Lines
  2. Lossy Transmission Lines: Introduction to the Skin Effect
  3. Demystifying the Skin Effect: Insights into AC Current Distribution
  4. The Skin Effect in Cylindrical and Rectangular Conductors: Eddy Currents and Current Crowding
  5. Introduction to Dielectric Loss in Transmission Lines
  6. Assessing Conductor and Dielectric Losses in Transmission Lines
  7. PCB Material Properties and Their Impact on Performance of High Frequency Boards

Mismatch Loss
  1. Mismatch Loss and Mismatch Uncertainty in RF Systems
  2. Mismatch Loss Effect on RF Power Measurement and Gain of Cascaded Amplifiers
  3. Mismatch Loss and Mismatch Uncertainty Via Attenuators and Statistical Models

Smith Chart
  1. The Smith Chart and Its Relation to the Reflection Coefficient and Impedance
  2. Learn by Example—Using an Impedance Smith Chart
  3. Analyze RLC Components Using the Admittance Smith Chart and Examples

Impedance Matching Techniques
  1. Design a Two-element Matching Network Using the ZY Smith Chart
  2. L-type Matching Network Basics—Examining L Network Frequency Response and Bandwidth
  3. Using the Smith Chart to Design a T and Pi Matching Network
  4. Designing L-type Matching Networks Using Series and Parallel RC and RL Circuits
  5. Introduction to Impedance Matching Using Transmission Line Elements
  6. Exploring Single Stub Impedance Matching Through Smith Chart Examples
  7. Learn Stub Tuning With a Smith Chart

Linear RF Amplifier Design
  1. Unconditional Stability and Potential Instability in RF Amplifier Design
  2. RF Amplifier Stability Factors and Stabilization Techniques
  3. Designing a Unilateral RF Amplifier for a Specified Gain
  4. How to Design a Bilateral RF Amplifier for Maximum Gain
  5. Using the Operating Power Gain to Design a Bilateral RF Amplifier
  6. Learn About Designing Unilateral Low-Noise Amplifiers
  7. Using the Available Power Gain to Design a Bilateral Low-Noise Amplifier

Power Amplifier Design
  1. Introduction to Class A Power Amplifiers: The Common-Emitter PA
  2. Introduction to the Inductively-Loaded Class A Power Amplifier
  3. Using the Load-Pull Technique in RF Power Amplifier Design
  4. Learn About Load-Pull Systems: Passive and Active Tuners
  5. Introduction to the Class B Power Amplifier
  6. Basic Principles of the Push-Pull Class B Power Amplifier

Fundamentals of Vector Network Analyzers
  1. Introduction to the Directional Coupler for RF Applications
  2. Understanding RF Power Measurement Errors in Directional Couplers
  3. Understanding the Inner Workings of Vector Network Analyzers
  4. Understanding the Significance of Dynamic Range and Spurious-Free Dynamic Range

RF Transformers and Baluns
  1. Understanding the Non-Idealities of Magnetically Coupled RF Transformers
  2. Balun Basics and Practical Performance Parameters
  3. Introduction to Transmission Line Transformers and the Bifilar Coil
  4. Understanding the Guanella Transmission Line Balun

  1. Star vs. Mesh Networking Topology: IoT Wireless Connectivity Fundamentals
  2. An Introduction to Bluetooth Mesh Networking
  3. Bluetooth Mesh Network Basics—Nodes, Elements, and Node Features
  4. Lighting Systems Get an IoT Facelift With Bluetooth Mesh [News]
  5. Introduction to Bluetooth Mesh Models
  6. New Reference Design Highlights the Inner Workings of Beacon-Based, Social-Distancing Tech [News]



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