Reverse Polarity Protection Circuit

Thread Starter

Robphillips18

Joined Mar 8, 2011
3
So i wan't to protect my circuit from being connected with reversed polarity, I have had a hunt around on the internet but have only found bits and bobs, mainly focused on protecting from a voltage spike rather than reverse polarity.

I ruled out using a diode in series due to the voltage drop associated with it as well as cost.

I have read about the Crowbar Circuit with a diode in parallel and fuse in series but no idea how to select the specifications of the diode and fuse appropriate to my circuit?

Its a 24V battery and the circuit draws approx 1A.

Thanks for your time in advance :)!
Rob
 

crutschow

Joined Mar 14, 2008
24,056
The fuse is in series and the diode is connected to ground (anode to ground for a plus supply) after the fuse. Then if you apply a reverse voltage the diode conducts and blows the fuse.

The fuse has to carry the load current and should probably have about a 1.5-2A rating. (Does the circuit draw any surge current?)

The diode should have about a 4-5A rating. No heat sink is required.
 

SgtWookie

Joined Jul 17, 2007
22,210
You could use an N-ch power MOSFET and a couple of Zener diodes back-to-back with a resistor to provide the reverse polarity protection. The voltage drop across the MOSFET will be minimal, if you select one that has a low Rds(on).

The Zener diodes are necessary, because most MOSFETs will be permanently damaged if you exceed ±20v from the source terminal to the gate terminal. The MOSFETs are used to ensure the Vgs stays within that limit.

If the battery is connected improperly (reverse voltage) then the MOSFET will remain off.

See the attached.
 

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jimkeith

Joined Oct 26, 2011
540
You could use an N-ch power MOSFET and a couple of Zener diodes back-to-back with a resistor to provide the reverse polarity protection. The voltage drop across the MOSFET will be minimal, if you select one that has a low Rds(on).
This is an active rectifier app
 

SgtWookie

Joined Jul 17, 2007
22,210
Carl's assertion about the P-ch MOSFET is correct.

I showed the circuit using an N-ch power MOSFET. Unless there is some reason that you need to switch the positive supply (like the ground is permanently connected to a common frame or the like) then I suggest that you will be better off using the N-channel solution to switch the ground side of the load; as you have a far wider selection of N-ch MOSFETs as P-ch MOSFETs.
 

bwack

Joined Nov 15, 2011
113
The fuse is in series and the diode is connected to ground (anode to ground for a plus supply) after the fuse. Then if you apply a reverse voltage the diode conducts and blows the fuse.

The fuse has to carry the load current and should probably have about a 1.5-2A rating. (Does the circuit draw any surge current?)

The diode should have about a 4-5A rating. No heat sink is required.
Say one uses this solution, could one use a polyswitch (self resetable fuse) instead of a fuse?
 

crutschow

Joined Mar 14, 2008
24,056
Say one uses this solution, could one use a polyswitch (self resetable fuse) instead of a fuse?
You could, but the speed of the fuse and the maximum available supply current is a factor. If it's too slow the diode will tend to blow before the fuse opens.
 
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