I want to understand how to design an opamp circuit given what i want.

e.g I want to implement short circuit protection, I already have a current sensing implemented using a current transformer, I know that X amount of current is expected (anything above the uC turns the system off but it is too slow, to account for inductive loads etc), I decide that 2X current is my limit for short circuit i.e any current above 2X is to be considered a short circuit. Hysteresis is to be +/- 0.25 times short circuit current (once short circuit has been detected the op-amp is not to deactivate until current falls down to 1.5X.)

So given all this how do I approach op-amp design? I am familiar with the 2 golden rules (Art of Electronics - Paul Horowitz) and I can solve circuits to some extent .... however when it comes to right down intuitive designing I am at a loss ... Normally I look at circuits, solve them and then tweak to produce desired results ... I dont suppose this is how things are meant to be i.e learn circuits and equations and then solve where necessary .... I was wondering how does one intuitively develop circuits around op-amps .... any handy literature or how one starts solving the above problem would be a blast ...

thanks