Hi All, If anyone's not familiar with the term, a kludge is some odd change to a degigned circuit or instrument that was found to be necessary in order for it to function. In manufacturing, the reccommended means of getting a product ready to ship goes something like: "shoot the engineer, gin up a kludge, and get it off the floor!" Kludges are not confined to electronics, but they do show up here and there. Programming's a great place for them, too. I have always admired Microsoft and IBM for atrificially setting up the 5100 to use memory in ten 64K pages, when the chip had a 20 bit address register. I've just done one in our church organ. Baldwin built it over 25 years ago. Naturally, the IC that went sour had converted tself into unobtainium some time in the past. I could get the function from the prints, so I stuck six 2N3904's on a header, and used that as a substitute. Looks ugly, as good kludges should, but works fine. I'm guilty of many more than that one. Anybody else have some tales to share?