I am not clearly between V and A

Thread Starter


Joined Dec 9, 2011
Hi everyone I am new to Allaboutcircuit and this is my first post.
I read that electron are move out from a atom when heat or some some other force is affect/apply to the atom that is said to be positive charge. And other atom receive more electron is said to be negative charge. These two charges are try to get back it original state(exceed electrons go back to require) when there is some medium exist between them. And there is also a force(electrostatic) occur during these state.
I want to know
1- Is the force is bigger according to the difference amount of require and exceed electrons?
2- Is the Volt(pressure/ potential difference) same as above force?

I guess, the different(electron) is more bigger, the force will be more bigger. So high voltage can get from lightning(~1000V).

If my guess is right why the voltage and A are different in different battery and why my dc adapter can change different V with the same A.

I am not sure my getting knowledge is right. I read my electronic books for one week and some time I confuse with theories.

Can anyone help me to explain?


Joined Oct 11, 2011
I'm not entirely sure I'm right, but as I understand it the electron's orbit around the proton(s) extends to different shells depending on the amount of external excitation, but will only remain there for a short period of time. When the atom collapses to its native balanced state, the absorbed energy is transmitted to next atom and the process repeats itself down the conductor away from the external energy source. The farther the electron orbit moves away from the proton, the greater the electromotive force. As the electron orbit colapses through each shell, the amount of energy required to attain the orbit is emitted. It takes more energy to attain more distant shell orbit so the emitted energy decreases in steps at each shell orbit in relation to the energy required to achieve it. Actual electron flow from valence to valence is pretty slow, but the potential difference exchange is pretty close to light speed.


Joined Mar 1, 2009
I will do my best to answer what I can.

Atoms consist of 3 parts, Protons, Neutrons, and electrons. Conductive materials like copper have an electron arrangement that makes it easy for an electron to break free from orbit around the atomic nucleus and become what is called a "free electron". When many electrons flow from one atom to another, you get current. Current is "charge in motion", because without electron flow, you generally have no current.

The other part of the equation is that you have to have some force to set the electrons in motion. This is where voltage comes in. Voltage is "electromotive force". As you stated, when there is an imbalance of electrons to protons, the atoms want to set themselves right by becoming a neutral charge. Electrons and protons are attracted to one another.

A battery or other voltage source has a positive and a negative. The negative side is filled with electrons and the positive side is filled with protons. When you hook 2 sides of a wire up between the two poles, electrons flow out of the negative terminal and into the positive terminal in order to neutralize the difference between them. The voltage is enough to break electrons in the copper wire free and make them "flow" through the wire, thus creating current. 1 ampere of current is equal to \(6.25 \times 10^{18}\) electrons flowing past a given point per second. 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons per second.

Ohm's law states that current is equal to voltage over resistance, or \(I=\frac{V}{R}\) Thus, if voltage is 12V through 100 Ohms of resistance, current will be 0.12 amps. Increasing voltage through the same resistance will increase the current, and reducing voltage through the same resistance will reduce the current.


Joined Feb 19, 2009
Now that you know that....

Electron flow is from negative to positive. If you think this way, all transistors, diodes, etc are drawn backwards.

The other "Conventional Flow" or hole flow, which goes from positive to negative at the exact same potential and rate as electron flow. The reason for the name is when an electron jumps from one atom to a new one, a "hole"/opening for an electron is left in the atom it just left, these "holes" flow from positive to negative. Thinking this way makes all the schematic symbols make sense.

For most situations, you can think of electricity as conventional flow, from + to - (The site uses this standard in the e-book and discussion forum just to be standard). The only time you'll run into problems thinking in terms of "hole flow" is when designing at the silicon/IC level, and a few other very special circumstances.

Some schools teach electron flow, some teach hole flow, as long as you stick with one or the other, your math will come out right. If you start mixing conventional flow with electron flow in the same equation, you won't get the correct answer.