In circuit, look at the collector voltage. Assuming it's set up as a grounded emitter, In circuit, look at the collector voltage. Assuming it's set up as a grounded emitter, the collector voltage should be about the same as Vcc when off, and should be at ground potential when on.
Out of circuit, use a meter to see if the p-n junctions B to E and B to C are good, plus confirm that there is no conduction E to C.
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by Kate Smith