[E-Book Question] 1.1 - Static Electricity

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Joined Jan 13, 2011
In section 1 of chapter 1 of the e-book, it explains the structure of atoms and atoms with charge.

"However, electrons have significantly more freedom to move around in an atom than either protons or neutrons. In fact, they can be knocked out of their respective positions (even leaving the atom entirely!) by far less energy than what it takes to dislodge particles in the nucleus. If this happens, the atom still retains its chemical identity, but an important imbalance occurs."

If an atom has greater or fewer electrons than protons, then isn't the structure is no longer an atom but an ion? How does charge happen amongst atoms which are supposed to be electrically neutral? If the electron shells of the atoms of neutral materials are full, why would either material give or gain any electrons?