Capacitor

Thread Starter

Lightfire

Joined Oct 5, 2010
690
Hello everybody,

I found out recently that a capacitor stores electric charge, which is interesting.

I am wondering how much voltage and current does a 1 microfarad capacitor can store. How about for a 220 microfarad?

Is there any formula on how to see how much voltage and current does a specific capacitor can charge.

Thank you very much everybody!
 

ErnieM

Joined Apr 24, 2011
8,055
Sorry, no formula per say. Real capacitors you can buy all have a voltage rating for the largest voltage you can put on them. It is best never to get too close to that rating, so if say you expect to put 100 volts on a cap buy one rated for 200 volts.

Same with current, if you are running lots of current all the time thru a cap check if it is rated for that much current.
 

kubeek

Joined Sep 20, 2005
5,732
Hello everybody,

I found out recently that a capacitor stores electric charge, which is interesting.

I am wondering how much voltage and current does a 1 microfarad capacitor can store. How about for a 220 microfarad?

Is there any formula on how to see how much voltage and current does a specific capacitor can charge.

Thank you very much everybody!
A capacitor stores energy equal to 0.5*C*V^2 [joules], so a 1uF cap charged to 50V will store 0.5*0.000,001*50*50 J = 0.00125 J
Energy of one joule is equal to power of 1W produced over 1 second.

As for current, that is limited only by the cap's internal resistance, reffered to as ESR - equivalent series resistance. If you short it, the initial current will obviously be V/ESR, if you discharge it in a load R, the current will be V/(R+ESR).
 

Georacer

Joined Nov 25, 2009
5,182
There are formulas that describe the capacitor's operation. Check your trusty wikipedia for more info.

Most notable ones are:
\(Capacitance=\frac{Charge}{Voltage}\\
\text{and}
Energy\ Stored=W=\frac12\cdot C \cdot V^2
\)
 

Thread Starter

Lightfire

Joined Oct 5, 2010
690
Sorry, no formula per say. Real capacitors you can buy all have a voltage rating for the largest voltage you can put on them. It is best never to get too close to that rating, so if say you expect to put 100 volts on a cap buy one rated for 200 volts.

Same with current, if you are running lots of current all the time thru a cap check if it is rated for that much current.
Thank you very much for your time, ErnieM.

So, if there is a voltage and current rating, what is farad rating for?

Thank you everybody and I hope for an answer.
 

crutschow

Joined Mar 14, 2008
25,397
............
So, if there is a voltage and current rating, what is farad rating for?..........
If you look at the equations, (which apparently you haven't) you will see that the "farad rating" capacitance (C) is how much energy (charge) the capacitor stores.
 

Adjuster

Joined Dec 26, 2010
2,148
More accurately, the capacitance C in farads defines the charge Q in coulombs required to change the potential across the capacitor by one volt. Q = CV, C = Q/V

Charge in coulombs is the integral of current in amperes over time in seconds, for a constant current this is simply the current multiplied by the time.
 
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