BJTs on ebook page 185--error?

Thread Starter


Joined Sep 27, 2011
hi, at page 183 of the pdf file it introduces the idea of a transistor as a switch and says "...lamp's current will move against the direction of the emitter arrow symbol". Please can you confirm the diagrams in figure 4.3b and 4.3c are correct becasue they seem to contradict the text; I have checked and checked again. Here I am using the word 'current' as a flow of positive charge ("conventional current") and I know earlier threads have discussed whether current means electrons or not-electrons. still in the diagram the poles of the battery are labelled... new to transistors I'm afraid!


Joined Apr 17, 2010
Here I am using the word 'current' as a flow of positive charge ("conventional current")

In Tony R. Kuphaldt book, he have used the term current as the flow of negative charges i.e.. electrons. In case of a battery the direction of current will be from negative to positive.

And when asking about the book please refer to the online version as the pdf version you have might be a newer or older version and members can’t check the data you are talking about as they might not have your version of pdf. Here is the online section refer your problems from here

Good luck


Joined Mar 24, 2008
We also have a sticky up about Conventional vs Electron flow. The book only uses electron flow, not conventional.