To compute the polar representation of a point (x,y):

- Rectangular Coordinates, where the magnitude of the components, can be represented by a point, with respect to a pair of orthogonal coordinate axes.
- Polar Coordinates, where the two components are the distance from a reference point, called the origin, and the angle between the line from the point to the origin, and a reference axis.

To invert the process, given a Magnitude, M, and an angle

- Compute the magnitude as:

- Compute the angle as:

θ

- Compute the x coordinate as:

- Compute the y coordinate as: