MOS transistor operation

Discussion in 'General Electronics Chat' started by sharanbr, Jul 19, 2015.

  1. sharanbr

    Thread Starter Active Member

    Apr 13, 2009
    76
    1
    Hello All,

    In typical digital circuits, is it correct to say that the drain and source voltages are fixed?
    The only variable, is the voltage at the gate of the MOS transistor.

    If my assumption is correct, I have tried to summarize in the attached table.
    Is it correct to say the transistor operates only in saturation and I don't see transistor operating in linear region.
     
  2. #12

    Expert

    Nov 30, 2010
    16,252
    6,751
    Vds approaches zero because that is the definition of saturation.
    If Vds did not change, the transistor wouldn't do anything.

    In digital work, the customary states are cut-off and saturation. Real life variations from that are usually considered to be error terms.
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2015
  3. sharanbr

    Thread Starter Active Member

    Apr 13, 2009
    76
    1
    Dear #12,

    I don't know why you say that. I can have Vds fixed at 5V (for e.g.) and control the gate voltage to control the current flow through the channel.
     
  4. #12

    Expert

    Nov 30, 2010
    16,252
    6,751
    Please post your schematic.
    When you change from generalities to specifics you must define your circuit.
    Try to include the digital switching circuit that uses no change in Vds to accomplish some function.
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2015
  5. ScottWang

    Moderator

    Aug 23, 2012
    4,853
    767
    Although the mosfet is one kinds of transistor, but use the name mosfet is more easier to identify with bjt transistor.

    If a Vgs(sat on) = 10V and then when the Vgs less than 10V down to Vgs(th) are all in linear region.
    If a Vgs(sat on) = 4.5V or 5V and then the Vgs less than 4.5V or 5V down to Vgs(th) are all in linear region.
     
  6. MikeML

    AAC Fanatic!

    Oct 2, 2009
    5,450
    1,066
    How can you say that the drain voltage is fixed. Look at this rudimentary NMOS logic inverter. Note what the drain voltage does as a function of the gate voltage.

    By definition, a logic inverter's output is low when its input is high, and vice-versa...

    249.gif
     
  7. Alec_t

    AAC Fanatic!

    Sep 17, 2013
    5,773
    1,103
    Perhaps you mean fixed Vdd (i.e the supply voltage)?
     
  8. sharanbr

    Thread Starter Active Member

    Apr 13, 2009
    76
    1
    Dear #12,

    I have to take back what I said. I have added a simple CMOS NAND circuit.

    Basically, in CMOS digital circuits, I have seen that any logic has fixed Vdd/Vss.
    The output of any logic unit always goes to gate input of next stage. The next stage would always have fixed Vdd/Vss.

    You can extend the circuit in the attached figure by adding, say, an AND gate to output of this circuit.

    If you see these circuits, at each gate stage, the Vdd/Vss is always fixed and what varies the voltage at the gate.

    I do apologize if I have changed my question but this is what I originally wanted to articulate.
     
  9. sharanbr

    Thread Starter Active Member

    Apr 13, 2009
    76
    1
    Dear Mike & Alec,

    Thanks. I have replied to #12 ...
     
  10. MikeML

    AAC Fanatic!

    Oct 2, 2009
    5,450
    1,066
    But the output node is switching from Vss to Vdd, and the drains of the associated PMOS and NMOS are not held at a constant voltage... They alternatively switch from being "off" to being "saturated".

    250.gif
     
  11. sharanbr

    Thread Starter Active Member

    Apr 13, 2009
    76
    1
    Dear Mike,

    I agree. I disregarded this. However, I would like to discuss two points ...

    1) if you see the attached circuit, PMOS transistor's drain terminal is connected to Vdd and source is connected to Q
    Similarly, NMOS transistor's drain terminal is connected to Q and source to Vss. Is this correct?

    2) In the inverter circuit, when a 0 voltage is applied to input, PMOS transistor is turned off and NMOS is turned on.
    Now, as current starts flowing into the NMOS transistor, the voltage on the Q terminal starts falling.
    So, Vds starts decreasing. So, NMOS transistor starts in saturation region and then enters linear region and then into cut-off.
    Is this correct?
     
  12. MikeML

    AAC Fanatic!

    Oct 2, 2009
    5,450
    1,066
    No, the source of the PMOS is connected to Vdd and the source of the NMOS is connected to Vss. The drains are connected to Q. The PMOS in my schematic is drawn with the source on top and drain on the bottom.

    No. 0V in turns off the NMOS and turns on the PMOS. They are enhancement devices.

    No. Think of it this way:

    If the input voltage = Vss (actually less than the Vth of the NMOS), the PMOS is fully on, and the NMOS is fully cut off.
    If the input voltage = Vdd (actually less than the Vth of the PMOS), the PMOS is fully cut off , and the NMOS is fully on.
    As the input voltage is near halfway between Vss and Vdd, then depending on the relative Vth of the NMOS and PMOS, there are regions where both can be partially on.
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2015
  13. MikeML

    AAC Fanatic!

    Oct 2, 2009
    5,450
    1,066
    Look at this CMOS inverter: I plot V(vout) red vs V(in) as it goes from Vss to Vdd

    I also plot the current through M1 and M2 (yellow and orange; they are identical) vs V(in). Note that the currents peak at V(in)=2.5V. This is typical of a CMOS inverter... With V(in) = 0V or 5V, the inverter draws no current, but V(out) is held at 5V or 0V, by the low impedance of the saturated PMOS or NMOS, respectively.

    95.gif
     
  14. sharanbr

    Thread Starter Active Member

    Apr 13, 2009
    76
    1
    Dear Mike,

    Thanks. I will simulate this circuit using LTSpice.

    In the circuit, the source of PMOS is held at 5V. So, when input is 0 volt then PMOS transistor goes from cut-off to saturation region directly.
    Similar condition applies to NMOS transistor when input goes from 0 to 5 volts.

    Am I making sense?
     
Loading...