nsaspook, I posted this to get your attention. I didn’t want to hijack that thread. I went to your link and then reviewed the material. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jefimenko's_equations#Discussion The c2 formula at the bottom of explanation is progress and welcome to see. We are starting to see this more now. This shows balance between the electric and magnetic. But he thinks that this balance shows that there can be no causation between electric and magnetic. This is a mistake. The magnetic is created from the electric. It always follows by 90 degrees. This is the cause of perpendicularity. This all happens when charge reaches the speed of light and turns into matter. I also reviewed his link and found he resides in my home town. I knew the halls of the old university well. In elementary school I sold critters to the biology students there.